The Spirit of Laws (1751)Charles de Secondat, Baron de Montesquieu In What Manner the Laws of Civil Slavery Relate to the Nature of the Climate1.   Of civil Slavery.2.   Origin of the Right of Slavery among the Roman Civilians.3.   Another Origin of the Right of Slavery.4.   Another Origin of the Right of Slavery.5.   Of the Slavery of the Negroes.6.   The true Origin of the Right of Slavery.7.   Another Origin of the Right of Slavery.8.   Inutility of Slavery among us.9.   Several Kinds of Slavery.10.   Regulations necessary in respect to Slavery.11.   Abuses of Slavery.12.   Danger from the Multitude of Slaves.13.   Of armed Slaves.14.   The same Subject continued.15.   Precautions to be used in Moderate Governments.16.   Regulations between Masters and Slaves.17.   Of Enfranchisements.18.   Of Freedmen and Eunuchs.

     1.    Justinian, Institutes, i.
     2.    Excepting a few cannibals.
     3.    I mean slavery in a strict sense, as formerly among the Romans, and at present in our colonies.
     4.    Biblioth. Ang., xiii, part II, art. 3.
     5.    See Solis, History of the Conquest of Mexico, and Garcilasso de la Vega, History of the Conquest of Peru.
     6.    Labat, New Voyage to the Isles of America, iv, p. 114, 1728, 12mo.
     7.    Present State of Russia.
     8.    Dampier, Voyages, iii.
     9.    Politics, i. 5.
   10.    As may be seen in the mines of Hartz, in Lower Saxony, and in those of Hungary.
   11.    De Moribus Germanorum, 25.
   12.    Tacitus, De Moribus Germanorum, 20, says the master is not to be distinguished from the slave by any delicacy of living.
   13.    Sir John Chardin, Travels to Persia.
   14.    Sir John Chardin, ii, in his description of the market of Izagour.
   15.    Book i, tit. 32, ° 5.
   16.    The revolt of the Mamelukes was a different case; this was a body of the militia who usurped the empire.
   17.    Law of the Visigoths, iii, tit. 1, ° 1.
   18.    Ibid., v, tit. 7, ° 20.
   19.    Ibid., v, tit. 2, ° 9.
   10.    Law of the Alemans, 5, ° 3.
   21.    Ibid., ° 5, per virtutem.
   22.    "Sicily," says Florus, "suffered more in the Servile than in the Punic war." -- iii. 19.
   23.    See the whole title of the senat. cons. Sillan., ff.
   24.    Leg. Si quis, ° 12, ff. de senat. cons. Sillan.
   25.    When Antony commanded Eros to kill him, it was the same as commanding him to kill himself; because, if he had obeyed, he would have been punished as the murderer of his master.
   26.    Leg. i, ° 22, ff. de senat. cons. Sillan.
   27.    Leg. i, ° 31, ff. ibid., xxix, tit. 5.
   28.    Xiphilin, In Claudio.
   29.    See Leg. 3, in Cod., De Patria potestate, by the Emperor Alexander.
   30.    Exod., 21. 20, 21.
   31.    Plutarch, On Superstition.
   32.    See the constitution of Antoninus Pius, Institutes, i, tit. 7.
   33.    Laws, Book ix.
   34.    This was frequently the spirit of the laws of those nations who came out of Germany, as may be seen by their codes.
   35.    Demosthenes, Orat. contra Midian, p. 610, Frankfort, 1604.
   36.    Tacitus, Annals, xiii. 27.
   37.    Freinshemius, Supplement, dec. 2, v.
   38.    Exod., 21.
   39.    Tacitus, Annals, xiii. 27.
   40.    Augustus's speech in Dio, lvi.
   41.    It was formerly the same in China. The two Mahometan Arabs who travelled thither in the ninth century use the word eunuch whenever they speak of a governor of the city.
   42.    Volume iii, p. 91.
   43.    Ibid., p. 94.